Lesson 1


The letters - B G D K P T - have two sounds, a hard and a soft.

The hard form is indicated by the placing of a dot over the letter - though, in modern usage, no mark at all is usually used to indicate the hard form.
The soft form is indicated by a dot under the letter.

But these dots are not written when they would interfere with vowel signs.

The hard sound

The soft sound

» A dot is never placed under the letter Pé.

» 'gh' is pronounced lower down the throat, is nearly like the Dutch 'g'.

» 'dh' is like the English 'th' in 'there'.

» 'kh' is like the German 'ch' in 'ach'.

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